The Leadership of America’s Choruses. A Study of Choral Conductors. With Arthur Brooks. Forthcoming June 2005 from Chorus America, Washington, DC.
Tsunami might have ripple effect on other charity. Op-Ed, The Morning Call, Allentown, PA, February 13, 2005, D-3. (pdf available)
Objective Outcomes. Nonprofits as Economic Systems. Nonprofit Times, Oct. 15, 2004, 21 (pdf available)
with Thomas H. Pollak (2004). The Finances and Operations of
Nonprofit Performing Arts Organizations in 2001 and 2002. Highlights and
Published by and available on-line from the Performing Arts
with Debra Harrison (2004) OPERA America Annual Field Report. Washington, DC: Opera America This report summarizes financial and operational activity in the opera field in Canada and the U.S. in fiscal 2002.
’Free Help’. Calculating Your Volunteers’ Value. Nonprofit Times, (February 15, 2004) 17-19. Commissioned by the National Center on Nonprofit Enterprise and available on-line at
Why Program Evaluation is a Good Investment. Nonprofit Times, (August 15, 2003), 17-19.Commissioned by the and available on-line at
Links Between Performing Artists and Audiences Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 33(2),
Abstract: While an audience’s attention is usually focused on the performer, artists are not the only ones creating value. Intermediaries contribute important elements of value in the artist-audience relationship, making markets more efficient and more fluid. This paper describes and analyzes the market functions and roles of the presenting organizations and booking agents who facilitate face-to-face meetings between artists and audiences. Implications are drawn for enhanced effectiveness of the performing arts market
Brooks, Arthur C. &
R. J. Kushner (2002) What Makes an Arts Capital? Quantifying a City’s
Cultural Environment, International Journal of Arts Management 5(1).
Abstract: Measuring the quantity, quality, or health of a city’s arts and culture is a complicated task. A number of comprehensive comparative arts measures have been developed to do so, but they all lack detail, and as such, are of limited usefulness to public administrators and arts managers. In this article, we define important aspects to measure in a city’s arts economy, and suggest proxies for these measures. We perform an example comparative analysis for 20 American cities on the level of arts activity for visitors and residents, the financial health of the arts sector, the quality of the arts, and the prospects for future growth. We then synthesize the different measures, identify alternative ways of conducting a similar measurement process, and provide suggestions for arts managers.
Brooks, Arthur C. &
R. J. Kushner (2001) Cultural Districts and Urban
Journal of Arts Management 3 (2) 4-15.
Abstract: A cultural district is a designated area of a city in which arts and cultural facilities serve as the primary attraction. This article describes how different American cities have undertaken cultural district development with respect to government involvement, types of district administration, development intensity, and cultural programming. The authors conclude that successful districts have several common characteristics, including effective public- and private-sector leadership, diverse funding sources, and clear objectives. The authors also provide several cautionary notes for cultural district development. For example, the link between cultural districts and economic growth is far from established, and the urban revitalization affected by cultural districts may lead to a process of inner-city gentrification.
With Arthur Brooks (2000)Atlanta,
GA: Research Atlanta, Inc.
From the Executive Summary: ... The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that might explain the condition of arts organizations in the region. The study compares Atlanta to nineteen of its peers in an attempt to determine where and if Atlanta is falling short, and what can be learned from other communities ... Overall, the data present a picture of a metropolitan Atlanta arts market that is not especiallly vigorous when compared with similar activities and assets in other cities ... The recommendations in this report suggest possible modes of action that may be appropriate responses by the arts and public policy communities of Atlanta
Arthur C. & R. J. Kushner (2000) A Cultural District for Downtown Atlanta Atlanta, GA: Research Atlanta, Inc.
From the Executive Summary: ... Many U.S. cities have developed cultural districts not only to enrich the cultural experience of residents but also to stimulate economic growth and urban revitalization, increase the attractiveness and safety of the downtown area, and attract tourism ... Research Atlanta studied the experiences of cities comparable to Atlanta to determine the critical ingredients for a successful cultural district initiative. This report explores those ingredients, then assembles them into a blueprint for action should the community choose to create a cultural district in downtown Atlanta ... The key issues for developing a cultural district are the purpose; the location; the organizing authority; the content or attractions; the management or level of control over the district; and the funding. The most pragmatic and marketable approach for a cultural district in downtown Atlanta is to provide an enriching cultural experience that increases the quality of life for Atlantans ... revitalization and economic development merit discussion as secondary benefits, not motivating factors.
Curriculum as Strategy: The Scope
and Organization of Business Education in Liberal Arts Colleges. Journal of Higher Education 70 (4) (1999),
Abstract: Although liberal arts colleges are reputed not to offer business education, a study of one hundred eighty-two nationally known colleges found that most offer business majors. Apart from economics, these programs may operate outside disciplinary mainstreams. Five structures for business education are identified. Although business education varies negatively with some performance measures, it is a common adaptive strategy for liberal arts colleges.
with Susan Y, McGorry
as An Influence on Purchaser Choice, Kalmbach Report No. 10. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh
Abstract: Previous research on purchasing decisions suggests that they are influenced by the characteristics of a good or service, the organizations involved in the transaction, and the buying and selling processes themselves. However, the majority of research dedicated to this topic does not address the issue of location, in particular the question of whether some purchase decisions are made in a company's region for reasons of economy or sentiment. This study attempts to empirically investigate the theoretical underpinnings of purchasing decisions and what role location may play in these decisions. Results show a relationship between local expenditures and the nature of the product, while the size of the firm (indicated by number of employees and sales) does not predict local expenditures. Finally, firms' expenditures within a locale tend to increase with loyalty, while a firm willing to investigate additional or alternative purchasing avenues does not appear to be more likely to purchase within a locale
Book Review of Tschirhart, Mary. (1996) Artful Leadership. Managing Stakeholder Problems in Nonprofit Arts Organizations Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press., Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27(3), (1998)
Nations Of The Caucasus Suffer Poverty, Chaos In Post-Soviet Era. The Morning Call, Allentown, PA, (July 16, 1998), A-16 (pdf available)
with P. P. Poole, Structure-Effectiveness
Relationships in Nonprofit Arts Organizations Nonprofit Management & Leadership 7(2), (1996).
Abstract: We examined 19 nonprofit performing arts organizations, investigating how influence was distributed among organizational members, how volunteers and staff were grouped in organizational structures, and how effective the organizations were. The organizations' effectiveness was assessed using multiple performance indicators. The analysis revealed five groupings or configurations of influence, and related the configurations to the organizations exhibiting the highest and lowest levels of organizational effectiveness. The principle conclusions are 1) a variety of structures are associated with good performance but structural dysfunctions are associated with organizational failure, and 2) member commitment to an organization's structure is an important element of success.
dissertation reports on exploratory research into strategy, structure, and
organizational effectiveness in nonprofit organizations. The underlying
thesis is that matches between strategy and structure contribute to
Strategy refers to decisions and processes associated with comprehensive relationships between organization and environment. Structure refers to division of labor and the means adopted to coordinate labor. Organizational effectiveness is modeled as a consequence of components -- constituency satisfaction, resource acquisition, internal process, and goal attainment -- which contribute directly and indirectly to overall effectiveness. Strategy, structure, and effectiveness were studied in nonprofit organizations because financial and volunteer donations present nonprofits with a unique decision environment. Arts organizations were chosen as data sites because they appear to compete simultaneously in markets for ticket sales and donations.
An inductive, exploratory grounded theory research method combined qualitative and quantitative analyses. Data were collected from 19 nonprofit arts organizations in two Northeast states using executive interviews, observation of organization programs, and archival data. The principle results of this study are:
1) nonprofit strategy can be classified using the character of benefits provided to the public. Arts Benefit, Community Benefit, and Private Benefit types were proposed.
2) The program margin ratio of earned income to program expenditure appears to indicate some aspects of strategic character.
3) two dimensions of nonprofit structure are focus/diffusion of influence and whether key influencers are volunteers or employees. Combining these two dichotomies leads to Grassroots (volunteer-diffused), Coordinating (employee-diffused), Directorial (employee- focused), and Institutional (volunteer-focused) structures. Evolution between structure types is motivated by specialization, coordination, and assertion of control by volunteers. Cases where organizations cannot decide how to configure influence display some disfunctions.
4) Effectiveness evaluation used subjective measures and within-sample ranking of financial strength to operationalize components of the effectiveness model. Both measures appeared to discriminate between most and least successful organizations in the sample.
Strategy decisions appear to contribute to organizational survival and/or impact. In two cases, structure has a significant impact on effectiveness, but this may be mediated by member commitment. In most of the sample, there is no consistent relationship between structural configurations and performance
Tourism in the Lehigh Valley: An Economic
Perspective Kalmbach Report No. 6. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University
This research project examined different ways in which tourism affects the Lehigh Valley economy. The principal findings included the following:
1) Travel to the Lehigh Valley is motivated by business, family, and recreation purposes;
2) Local suppliers respond to that demand through convention activity, retail, higher education, recreational facilities, spectator sports, and cultural programs;
3) Over 2.1 million visits to the Lehigh Valley can be fully or partially attributed to tourism;
4) An unknown number of other visits can be attributed to regular work assignments, transitional migration, and family visits;
5) The attendance claimed by large-scale events without gates should be carefully examined;
6) Direct economic spending, using estimated attendance combined with average spending derived from state-wide figures, can be roughly estimated at $214 million; and
7) Analysis of future development and investment should take into account the quality of employment that is generated in projecting the effects of new projects
Action Research Validation of an
Inventory of Effectiveness Measures, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit
Organizations and Voluntary Action, Miami, FL, 2001 and to the Conference,
Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness and Performance, Kansas City, MO,
2002. (pdf available)
Abstract: In a systems model of organization function, resources are consumed and transformed, creating outputs, which dynamically affect the next iteration of resource use. In a closed systems model, no exogenous effects disturb the system; in an open systems model, environmental factors affect all elements of the system. This paper presents an inventory of performance measures based on an open systems model of organizational effectiveness. In this model, performance is examined by looking at the effects of five separate components: satisfying constituents, mobilizing resources, effectively using these resources, setting and attaining goals, and adapting to environmental change. Each component has an independent effect on overall organizational performance and each one is necessary for an integrated concept of effectiveness, but none by itself is sufficient. The paper addresses the issues of validity and the ability of managers to appropriately use a measurement model in environments where measures are frequently challenged. Its key contribution is a performance measurement inventory developed to operationalize the systems model of effectiveness in a manner that fits into schemas and scripts of managers. The action research is a multi-year process of iteratively applying and improving the measurement model and its tools. The paper proceeds as follows: first, the issue of validity is framed in terms that connect research and practice; the model of organizational effectiveness is presented; this is then mapped onto an inventory of measures; the process of validating the inventory and its tools is described; measurement techniques are presented that can be used in organizational assessment and organizational development situations; and lessons are presented for research and practice in the measurement process.
with Luke Greeves. How Organizational Development Practice is Evolving in the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. Presented to the Association for
Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Miami, FL, 2001
Abstract: As interest in nonprofit management and the scope of voluntary action has increased, there has been growing interest in scholarly circles in international voluntary action to improve the situation of the poor and vulnerable in the developing world. Since the late 1980s, accelerated by the end of the Cold War, alternative international development strategies for poverty alleviation and capacity building have emerged and entered into industry debate and practice. It is increasingly that non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with established structures, relying on local participation to design and administer community-based programs, have roles of growing importance in reaching the poor and vulnerable who often remain out of reach of assistance. Long-term, strengthening of local capacity, more than developing short-lived one-off projects, is increasingly accepted in promoting sustainability and supporting a programme's relevance and impact.
A broad industry, mostly made up of nonprofit organizations, serves to facilitate the development of local capacity in numerous contexts of evolving civil society around the world. The purpose of this paper is to examine organizational development (OD) evolution in the international humanitarian industry, and to learn how OD assistance is offered to nonprofit organizations in developing countries. This is done through the lens of an international non-governmental organization (INGO), the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, combining external and internal perspectives on the Movement and the American Red Cross, one of its member organizations.
Shape of Effectiveness: An Evolving Conceptual Model of Organizational
Presented to the
Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action,
Arlington, VA, 1999
Abstract: In the context of the panel presentation, the purpose of this paper is to provide further integration of issues in organization theory with the current desires of organization practitioners and scholars to improve their knowledge of organizational performance. The paper will expand on the following themes:
The conceptual approaches (modeling, linking, applying, extending) are portrayed in several nonprofit organization settings. Theoretical implications are drawn regarding the validity of the model and its links to evolving theories about organizational performance Additional implications for practice are drawn from a current research project in which the author is assisting the American Red Cross. The intent of the research is to help the Red Cross understand and manage organizational performance issues as they apply to Red Cross and Red Crescent organizations in the nations with vulnerable populations; the policy issue that emerges from this asks how can the American Red Cross help improve organizational performance in these other organizations with targeted organizational and institutional development assistance.
Arthur C. & R. J. Kushner Cultural Districts
and Urban Development, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and
Voluntary Action, Arlington, VA, 1999
Abstract: A cultural district is a designated area of a city in which arts and cultura facilities serve as the primary attraction. Development of these districts around the country has been based on the belief that they arts can function as a tool in urban revitalization. In addition to improving the cultural life of the city, they may also aid in achieving a more livable downtown area and promote economic growth. This article describes how different American cities have undertaken cultural district development with respect to government involvement, types of district administration, development intensity, and cultural programming. We conclude that successful districts have several common characteristics, including effective public- and private-sector leadership, diverse funding sources, clear objectives, and awareness of consumer demand.
G. Baker, Never the Twain Shall Meet: Cross-cultural
Evaluation of Organizational Performance, Presented to the Association
for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Seattle, WA,
Abstract: This paper examines how international relief and development programs are designed, implemented, and, how they evaluated in the local development agency setting. We adopt a systems framework to present a model of organizational effectiveness that incorporates constituency satisfaction, resource acquisition, internal process effectiveness, and goal attainment as linked components. This model framed our assessment of organizational development processes at work in indigenous relief organizations in the Caucasus region. Based on this and other experiences and reading in international relief, we identify five areas of conflict between and among participants in the relief process: between disciplines, among donors, between donors and recipients, between evaluators and managers, and between relief and development priorities. Each of these is explored. We conclude with some suggestions for principles that span the various conflicts.
The Strategic Analytics of Nonprofit
Arts Decision-Making, Presented to the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations
and Voluntary Action, Seattle, 1998.
Abstract: Nonprofit live performing arts organizations present experiences to their audiences that combine time, place, and performance. This paper explores the process by which these events are organized from a strategic management point of view. Strategy is described here as an organizational-level, goal- directed response to environment, and particularly the competitive environment. Nonprofit strategy is based on four domains of strategic choice: the range of benefits provided, financing, labor force, and capital intensity of production. Three alternative strategic approaches are proposed to categorize nonprofit performing arts behavior, based primarily on their benefit approach. Alternative approaches used by space owners and renters are suggested. The process of designing live performing arts events is outlined, showing a sequential series of considerations and decisions. Implications are drawn for practice, and suggestions are made for follow-on research.
Organizational Effectiveness. Models and Applications to Strategic Management Problems in Nonprofit Organizations, Presented to the Department of Public Administration, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, April 1999, and to the LaSalle University Nonprofit Management Forum, Philadelphia, PA, May, 1999.
Methods for the Community Service Society
of New York, 2003.
CSSNY is a nonprofit agency offering service in eight different program areas in New York City, from research to advocacy to direct social service. The goal of the project was to develop tools for evaluating the performance of the programs individually and collectively.
The Finances and Operations of Performing Arts
Tom Pollak. Presented by Urban Institute to American Symphony Orchestra League,
Association of Performing Arts Presenters, Dance/USA, Opera America, and
Theatre Communications Group, 2003.
This report was the first time that data from these sources was combined to present a picture of finances and operations across the artistic disciplines.
Shareowner Value 101. An employee education program for the intranet site of PPL
The intent of this project was to help PPL educate and inform its employees regarding the importance of shareholder value.
Guide For Assessing Organizational Effectiveness In National Societies. A
Resource for Organizational Development Facilitators in the International Red
Cross / Red Crescent Movement Washington, DC: American Red Cross International
This was a comprehensive approach, using the open systems model of organizational effectiveness. It is used world-wide by the American Red Cross and its partners in the Red Cross / Red Crescent Movement. (2000)
Institutional Development Practices for the American Red Cross: A Methodology for Examining National Society Effectiveness. Report to the International Services Department, American Red Cross, Washington, DC, (1999)
Institutional Development Practices for the American Red Cross. Current Practice and Recommendations for the Future. Report to the International Services Department, American Red Cross, Washington, DC., (1999)
With Thomas G. Baker & Karin Håkansson (1998) The Caucasus Capacity Building Project: A Work in Progress. Report to the American Red Cross, International Services Department (Washington, DC), International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Geneva, Switzerland), U. S. State Department Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (Washington, DC)
Last modified on March 25, 2005. All papers and publications in this page are © Roland J. Kushner or other copyright owners. Click below for abstracts, summaries, and links.